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SPE 092

Subsurface Characterization of the Edmonton-Area Acid-Gas Injection Operations

Acid gas dissolved in water in the Redwater oil field, and the resulting weak acidic solution ("sour" water) is injected into the depleted Leduc Formation Redwater reef trough 47 alternating wells. If only the natural setting is considered, ... Show Abstract

Bachu, S.  Buschkuehle, B.E.  Haug, K.  Michael, K.  2008-04-14

SPE 093

Subsurface Characterization of the Pembina-Wabamun Acid-Gas Injection Area

Subsurface Characterization of the Pembina-Wabamun Acid-Gas Injection Area If only the natural setting is considered, including geology and flow of formation waters, the basin to local-scale hydrogeological analysis indicates that injecting acid ... Show Abstract

Bachu, S.  Buschkuehle, B.E.  Haug, K.  Michael, K.  2008-04-14

SPE 095

Subsurface Characterization of the Brazeau Nisku Q Pool Reservoir for Acid Gas Injection

The experience gained since the start of the first acid-gas injection operation in Canada in 1989 shows that, from an engineering point of view, acid-gas disposal is a well-established technology. The operator has met all the current requirements ... Show Abstract

Bachu, S.  Buschkuehle, B.E.  Michael, K.  2008-04-14

ESR 2000-11

Suitability of the Alberta Subsurface for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Media

Sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in geological media is a potential solution to the release into the atmosphere of CO2, a greenhouse gas. Basically, there are five ways of sequestering CO2 in geological media: 1) through enhanced oil recovery ... Show Abstract

Bachu, S.  Brulotte, M.  Grobe, M.  Stewart, S.A.  2000-03-01

SPE 094

Stress Regime at Acid-Gas Injection Operations in Western Canada

Abstract: Acid gas, a mixture of CO2 and H2S produced from sour gas reservoirs in Western Canada, has been injected into deep geological formations for close to 15 years with a good safety record. Injection currently takes place at 41 locations into depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and deep saline aquifers. From this point of view, the acid-gas injection operations in Western Canada constitute a commercial-scale analogue for CO2 geological storage. A major issue in geological injection of fluids is the integrity of the injection unit; i.e., avoidance of leakage through natural or induced fractures. Regulatory agencies in Western Canada impose safe limits on the injection pressure to maintain the pressure around the injection well below the fracturing threshold of the rocks. An evaluation of the stress regime at the acid-gas injection sites in Western Canada was performed to assess the relationship between the maximum allowed wellhead injection-pressures and the rock-fracturing thresholds.The stress regime in the Alberta Basin has been established in this study on the basis of 1446 hydraulic tests and on density logs in selected wells. On this basis, the minimum horizontal stress and the vertical stress have been estimated at all acid-gas injection sites. Minimum horizontal stresses increase with depth with a basin-wide average gradient of 16.6 kPa/m. Maximum vertical stresses increase with depth with a basin-wide gradient of 23.8 kPa/m. Fracture pressures increase with depth with an average gradient of 19 kPa/m, and are at all the sites greater than the minimum horizontal stress, but smaller than the vertical stress. Maximum bottom hole injection pressures are safely below the minimum horizontal stress, hence lower than the fracture pressure. Thus, there is no danger of opening existing fractures, neither, obviously, of inducing new ones. The study has also shown that, in the case of acid or greenhouse gas injection, prescribing the maximum wellhead injection pressure, according to general values established for water disposal, is not sufficient because the gas most likely will not have enough bottom-hole pressure to overcome the formation pressure and enter the injection unit. Thus, for acid and greenhouse gas injection in geological media, there is need to establish the maximum bottom hole and wellhead injection pressures on the basis of minimum horizontal stress to avoid opening of potential pre-existing fractures, and on the basis of gas properties at reservoir and wellhead conditions (pressure and temperature). The current acid-gas injection operations in Western Canada meet the safety criteria imposed by the need to maintain the integrity of the injection unit. However, the wide range of variability in the ratio between minimum horizontal stresses and fracturing pressures points out to the need to perform hydraulic tests at each site, rather than estimate the fracturing pressure from basin-wide fracturing gradients or numerical models. Performing carefully conducted tests will also allow site-specific determination of the minimum horizontal stress, hence of a better upper limit for the bottom hole injection pressure, to ensure that pre-existing fractures, if present, will not be opened. Place Keywords 72e 72l 72m 73d 73e 73l 73m 74d 74e 74l 74m 82g 82h 82i 82j 82n 82o 82p 83a 83b 83c 83d 83e 83f 83g 83h 83i 83j 83k 83l 83m 83n 83o 83p 84a 84b 84c 84d 84e 84f 84g 84h 84i 84j 84k 84l 84m 84n 84o 84p alberta alberta basin british columbia canada western c Theme Keywords acid gas co2 engineering fractures geology injection

Bachu, S.  Haug, K.  Michael, K.  2008-04-14

BUL 060

Evaluation of effects of deep waste injection in the Cold Lake area, Alberta

The regional and local effects of underground injection of wastewater from in situ oil sands pilot plants have been evaluated at sites in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, using projected injection rates up to the year 2015. Geochemical effects were ... Show Abstract

Bachu, S.  Perkins, E.H.  Hitchon, B.  Lytviak, A.T.  Underschultz, J.R.  1989-01-01

BUL 058

Hydrogeology of the Swan Hills Area, Alberta: Evaluation for deep waste injection

A detailed hydrogeological study was carried out in a region defined as Tp 62-74 R 1-13 W5M, comprising 15 760 square km effectively centered on the Special Waste Injection Site of the Alberta Special Waste Management Corporation. The objective was ... Show Abstract

Hitchon, B.  Sauveplane, C.M.  Bachu, S.  Koster, E.H.  Lytviak, A.T.  1989-01-01

BUL 059

Hydrogeological and geothermal regimes in the Phanerozoic succession, Cold Lake area, Alberta and Saskatchewan

The natural, steady-state fluid flow and geothermal regimes were determined for a region defined as Tp 50-70, R 15 W3M to R 17 W4M (60 000 km2), including the Cold Lake Oil Sand Deposit and adjacent heavy oil areas to the south. Data processing was ... Show Abstract

Hitchon, B.  Bachu, S.  Sauveplane, C.M.  Ing, A.  Lytviak, A.T.  1989-01-01

BUL 061

Regional-Scale Subsurface Hydrogeology in Northeast Alberta

The hydrogeological regime of formation waters in the Phanerozoic sedimentary succession was determined for a region defined as Tp 70-103 W4 Mer (55-58 degrees;N latitude and 110-114 degrees;W longitude) in northeast Alberta, covering most of the ... Show Abstract

Bachu, S.  Underschultz, J.R.  Hitchon, B.  Cotterill, D.K.  1993-01-01

BUL 062

Industrial Mineral Potential of Alberta Formation Waters

Nearly 130 000 analyses of formation waters from Alberta and adjacent areas were searched for contents of Ca, Mg, K, Br, I and Li exceeding specified regional exploration thresholds. The 5280 analyses meeting these criteria comprise the formation ... Show Abstract

Hitchon, B.  Bachu, S.  Underschultz, J.R.  Yuan, L.P.  1995-01-01